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1 The Plant Body
2 ROOTS IN FLOWERING PLANTS Origin (Radicle or Adventitious) Function External Anatomy Internal Anatomy Specialized Roots Roots and Plant Nutrition
3 Monocotyledonous & Dicotyledonous Flowering Plants
4 Embryonic root or radicle
5 World’s Biggest Seed with Embryonic Root or Radicle The Royal Botanic Garden in Edinburgh germinated this bowling- ball-like coco de mer (Lodicea maldivica) palm. The seed weighs 35lb (16kg) and can produce a tree that will live up to 300 years. Scottish botanists put in a dark case, and now a root has developed. It will produce one leaf a year for the next few years. The tree will begin to flower in years and produce its own seeds after another five to seven years ( ). Source:
6 Tap root and Fibrous (Diffuse) Root Systems – Both arise from radicle
7 Comparison of Root Systems
8 Adventitious Roots: roots that arise from anything other than the radicle
10 Roots: Function Roots anchor the plant in the substratum or soil. Roots absorb water and dissolved nutrients or solutes (nitrogen, phosphorous, magnesium, boron, etc.) needed for normal growth, development, photosynthesis, and reproduction. In some plants, roots have become adapted for specialized functions.
11 EXTERNAL ANATOMY Root cap Region of cell division Region of elongation Region of differentiation or maturation
12 Root Cap
13 thimble-shaped mass of parenchyma cells at the tip of each root protects the root from mechanical injury Dictyosomes or Golgi bodies release a mucilaginous lubricant (mucigel) cells lasts less than a week, then these die possibly important in perception of gravity (i.e., geotropism or gravitropism) amyloplasts (also called statoliths) appear to accumulate at the bottom of cells
14 Region of Cell Division Apical meristem – cells divide once or twice per day. The transitional meristems arise from the tips of roots and shoots. These include: –the protoderm (which forms the epidermis) –the ground meristem (which forms the ground tissue) –the procambium (forms the primary phloem and xylem).
15 Region of Elongation – cells become longer and wider
16 Region of Maturation or Differentiation
17 root hairs develop as protuberances from epidermal cells increase the surface area for the absorption of water cuticle exists on root but not on root hairs
18 Dicot Root in Cross Section
19 Dicot root in Cross Section
20 The Casparian Strip
22 Monocot Root in Cross Section
23 Lateral Roots Arise from the Pericycle of the Stele
24 Secondary Growth in Dicot Roots
26 Primary and Secondary Growth in Roots
28 Modified Roots Food storage Propagative roots Pneumatophores Aerial Roots Photosynthetic roots of some orchids Contractile roots some herbaceous dicots and monocots Buttress roots looks Parasitic roots Symbiotic roots –mycorrhizae or “fungus roots” –Legumes (e.g., pea, beans, peanuts) and bacterium form root nodules.
29 Turnip + Cabbage = Rutabaga
30 Pneumatophores – black mangrow
31 Cypress Knees
32 Buttress Roots
33 Symbiotic Roots Legumes (e.g., pea, beans, peanuts) form root nodules. Mutualism between a plant and bacterium which allows for the fixation of atmospheric nitrogen to form that the plant can utilized. The bacterium is reward with food and a place to live
34 Symbiotic Roots Mycorrhizae or “fungus roots” where a symbiotic relationship forms between a plant and a fungus. In this partnership the fungus provides protection against some types of pathogens and increase the surface area for the absorption of essential nutrients (e.g. phosphorous) from the soil. The plant in return provides food for the fungus in the form of sugar and amino acids
35 Photosynthetic Roots
36 Parasitic roots – Dodder
37 Propagative Roots with Adventitious Buds/Stems
Plants can be grouped based on the surface of the leaf. Some plants have leaves with smooth and shiny surfaces e.g. banana plant, spiderlily and yam plant. Whilst some have rough and dull surfaces e.g. sunflower, chrysanthemum, fern and coconut tree
Leaves are normally green in colour. However, there are some plants with leaves’ coloured red, yellow or purple e.g. bougainvillea, croton and mother-in-law’s tongue.
Plants can also be grouped according to the shape of leaves. Oval shaped leaves e.g. mango tree and canna plant. Long leaves e.g. sugar cane plant, pandanus and lallang. Irregular shaped leaves e.g. papaya plant and chrysanthemum.
Plants also can be grouped according to the edges of the shaped leaves i.e. tooth-edged, smooth-edged or lobe edged. Tooth-edged e.g. rose plant; smooth-edged e.g. balsam plant; lobe edged e.g. papaya plant and maple tree.
Different Ways of Grouping of Plants
Plants can be grouped in different ways based on similar or common external features.
For examples these flowering plants i.e. pea plant, pineapple plant, banana plant, rambutan tree, hibiscus plant and bougainvillea plant. They can also be grouped like this:
soft stem > pea plant, pineapple plant and banana plant
woody stem > rambutan tree, hibiscus plant and bougainvillea plant
Do you know
The actual flower of bougainvillea plant is small and generally white, but each cluster of three flowers is surrounded by three or six bracts with the bright colors associated with the plant, including pink, magenta, purple, red, orange, white, or yellow.