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Observe Diversity of Plants

characteristics of Spirogyra, Agaricus, Moss, Fern, Pinus (either with male or female cone) and an angiosperm plant.

Draw and give two identifying features of the groups they belong to.

Apparatus and materials required:

A slide of Spirogyra, specimen of Agaricus, moss, fern, Pinus with a male female cone, an angiosperm plant, like mustard, hand lens and a compound microscope.

Theory:

Diverse organisms have a wide range of sizes, structures, forms, shapes and distributions on the earth. There are more than 10 million organisms on the earth. About 1.7 million of them (1.2 million animals and 0.5 million plants) have been identified, scientifically named and classified.

Spirogyra (green algae):

Characteristics:

1. Spirogyra is a green alga having a filamentous, unbranched, multicellular and threadlike structure.

2. Each filament has a large number of rectangular (length being more than breadth) cells.

3. Each cell has two parts: the thick, two-layered cell wall (outer wall made up of pectin and the inner wall is cellulosic) and the protoplasm.

4. The filaments of Spirogyra are slimy to touch due to the dissolution of their outer pectin layer.

ADVERTISEMENTS:

5. The cytoplasm has a large vacuole at the centre and 1-16 ribbon-shaped, spirally coiled chloroplasts. Each chloroplast has a number of small round bodies called pyrenoids.

6. A large nucleus is suspended in the centre of the cell by a number of cytoplasmic strands.

Characteristic features of the group:

1. The green algae Spirogyra belongs to the group Thallophyta. The members of this group have an undifferentiated body called thallus

Experiment to Observe Diversity of Plants

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Experiment to Observe Diversity of Plants!

Experiment:

Objective:

To study the characteristics of Spirogyra, Agaricus, Moss, Fern, Pinus (either with male or female cone) and an angiosperm plant.

Draw and give two identifying features of the groups they belong to.

Apparatus and materials required:

A slide of Spirogyra, specimen of Agaricus, moss, fern, Pinus with a male female cone, an angiosperm plant, like mustard, hand lens and a compound microscope.

Theory:

Diverse organisms have a wide range of sizes, structures, forms, shapes and distributions on the earth. There are more than 10 million organisms on the earth. About 1.7 million of them (1.2 million animals and 0.5 million plants) have been identified, scientifically named and classified.

Spirogyra (green algae):

Characteristics:

1. Spirogyra is a green alga having a filamentous, unbranched, multicellular and threadlike structure.

2. Each filament has a large number of rectangular (length being more than breadth) cells.

3. Each cell has two parts: the thick, two-layered cell wall (outer wall made up of pectin and the inner wall is cellulosic) and the protoplasm.

4. The filaments of Spirogyra are slimy to touch due to the dissolution of their outer pectin layer.

ADVERTISEMENTS:

5. The cytoplasm has a large vacuole at the centre and 1-16 ribbon-shaped, spirally coiled chloroplasts. Each chloroplast has a number of small round bodies called pyrenoids.

6. A large nucleus is suspended in the centre of the cell by a number of cytoplasmic strands.

Characteristic features of the group:

1. The green algae Spirogyra belongs to the group Thallophyta. The members of this group have an undifferentiated body called thallus.

ADVERTISEMENTS:

2. No vascular system is found in the members.

3. Algae are autotrophic, i.e., they synthesize food by photosynthesis as they have the chlorophyll pigments.

Agaricus (mushroom):

Characteristics:

1. Agaricus is a common, white, fleshy edible mushroom.

2. It grows in the rainy season on damp logs of wood, trunks of trees and decaying organic matter

3. It is a saprophytic fungus.

4. The body is umbrella-shaped and is divided into a fleshy stalk, or stipe, and a fleshy pileus, or cap.

5. The pileus is dome-shaped, present at the top of stipe. The under surface of the pileus has many radiating strips called gills.

6. A membranous, ring-like structure called annulus is present on the stalk which covers the young basidiocarp.

7. The function of the basidiocarp is to produce and disperse spores.

Characteristic features of the group:

1. A mushroom is a fungus that belongs to the group Thallophyta.

2. The modes of nutrition in fungi are saprophytic or parasitic.

3. They do not possess chlorophyll, hence depend either on dead organic matter or on other living organisms for food.

Funaria (moss):

Characteristics:

1. Mosses are commonly found growing in tufts on moist and shady walls, damp soil and on tree trunks.

2. The main plant body is a gametophyte (haploid) which is green, erect (1-3 cm high) and sparsely branched.

3. The plant body is differentiated into root like structures called rhizoids, axis, or stem and spirally arranged leaves.

4. The rhizoids are branched and multicellular which fix the plant to the soil and absorb water and minerals.

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