A plant in which all structures above the surface of the soil, vegetative or reproductive, die back at the end of the annual growing season, and never become woody. While these structures are annual in nature, the plant itself may be annual, biannual, or perennial. Herbaceous plants that survive for more than one season possess underground storage organs, and thus are referred to as geophytes.
Terms used in describing plant habit, include:
Acaulescent – the leaves and inflorescence rise from the ground, appearing to have no stem.
Acid plant – plants with acid saps, normally due to the production of ammonium salts (malic and oxalic acid)
Acme – the period when the plant or population is at its maximum vigor.
Actinomorphic – parts of plants that are radially symmetrical in arrangement.
Arborescent – growing into a tree-like habit, normally with a single woody stem.
Ascending – growing uprightly, in an upward direction, heading in the direction of the top.
Assurgent – growth ascending.
Branching – dividing into multiple smaller segments.
Caducous – falling away early.
Caulescent – with a well-developed stem above ground.
Cespitose – forming dense tufts, normally applied to small plants typically growing into mats, tufts or clumps.
Creeping – growing along the ground and producing roots at intervals along surface.
Deciduous – falling away after its function is completed.
Decumbent – growth starts off prostrate and the ends become upright.
Deflexed – bending downward.
Determinate growth – Growing for a limited time, floral formation and leaves (see also Indeterminate).
Dimorphic – of two different forms.
Ecad – a plant assumed to be adapted to a specific habitat.
Ecotone – the boundary that separates two plant communities, generally of major rank – trees in woods and grasses in savanna for example.
Ectogenesis – variation in plants due to conditions out side of the plants.
Ectoparasite – a parasitic plant that has most of its mass outside of the شركة عزل اسطح بالرياض host, the body and reproductive organs of the plant lives outside of the host.
Epigeal – living on the surface of the ground. See also terms for seeds.
Epigean – occurring on the ground.
Epigeic – plants with stolons on the surface of the ground.
Epigeous – on the ground. Used for leaf fungus that live on the surface of the leaf.
Epilithic – growing on the surface of rocks.
Epiphloedal – growing on the bark of trees.
Epiphloedic – an organism that grows on the bark of trees.
Epiphyllous – growing on the leaves. For example, Helwingia japonica has epiphyllous flowers (ones that form on the leaves). Epiphyte – growing on another organism but not parasitic. Not growing on the ground.
Epiphytic – having the nature of an epiphyte.
Equinoctial – a plants that has flowers that open and close at definite times during the day.
Erect – having an essentially upright vertical habit or position.
Escape – plant originally under cultivation that has become wild, garden plant growing in natural areas.
Evergreen – remaining green in the winter or during the normal dormancy period for other plants.
Eupotamous – living in rivers and streams.
Euryhaline – normally living in salt water but tolerant of variable salinity rates.
Eurythermous – tolerant of a wide range of temperature.
Exclusive species – confined to specific location.
Exotic – not native to the area or region.
Exsiccatus – a dried plant, most often شركة عزل مائي بالرياض used for specimens in a herbarium.
Indeterminate growth – Inflorescence and leaves growing for an indeterminate time, until stopped by other factors such as frost (see also Determinate).
Lax – non upright, growth not strictly upright or hangs down from the point of origin.
Parasitic – using another plant as a source of nourishment.
Precocious – flowering before the leaves emerge.
Procumbent – growing prostrate or trailing but not rooting at the nodes.
Prostrate – lying flat on the ground, stems or even flowers in some species.
Repent – creeping.
Rosette – cluster of leaves with very short internodes that are crowded together, normally on the soil surface but sometimes higher on the stem.
Rostellate – like a rosette (cf. rostellum).
Rosulate – arranged into a rosette.
Runner – an elongated, slender branch that roots at the nodes or tip.
Stolon – A branch that forms near the base of the plant and grows horizontally and roots and produces new plants at the nodes or apex.
Stoloniferous – plants produce stolons.
Semi-erect – Not growing perfectly straight.
Suffrutescent – somewhat shrubby, or shrubby at the base.
Upright – Growing upward.
Virgate – wand-like, slender erect growing stem with many leaves or very short branches.
Woody – forming secondary growth laterally around the plant so as to form wood.